WHAT IS DNA?
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the0 genetic material present in every living cell of the human body. All living organisms possess DNA which is responsible for a particular character and trait. It signifies our identity, and it contains codes that are usually interpreted by the cell machinery that leads to the production of various proteins and enzymes. It also lies the basis of diseases, resulting from the cells' error interpretation of the codes on the DNA. Transcription of the codes occurs in the body cell by the enzyme RNA polymerase, which leads to the production of a single-stranded RNA that is translated to protein, and the protein is what brings out the characters and traits.
DNA testing is a mode of testing used to identify changes in chromosomes, genes or proteins. It is used to diagnose diseases and ascertain facts and conclude on assumptions such as paternity, a genetic disorder, and the ability to pass a condition to their offspring.
PROCESS OF DNA TESTING
Before any biological test can be carried out, the sample is first collected. The selection for DNA test includes body fluid, hair, taking an invasive swab from the cheek.
After the cells have been collected, the cells are torn apart (lysed), usually done with an enzyme. This process breaks open the cell membrane opens, and its components are released.
After the cell compartments are released, DNA is separated from other cell components, mostly with electrophoresis (a method that uses an electric field to sort molecules in a sample). The separated DNA is then copied using a polymerase chain reaction that produces more copies of the DNA used for testing.
The genetic markers are then identified; these markers are sequences on the DNA on a known location or chromosome used to identify individuals or species, which are later used for matching against an unknown DNA in case of a paternity DNA test.
DNA TESTING is used in