Globally, agriculture is the mainstay for the sustenance of human population. But as well water consumption is experiencing a geometrical decrease in its availability for domestic consumption. So in order to create a balance within all these limitations, the smart irrigation system utilizing the internet of things technology needs to be developed focusing on water usage based on the ability to view and control consumption rate. For the system to be fully developed, some parameters need to be established and put in place, such as temperature and humidity sensors to detect every slight changes, soil moisture sensor to detect soil water content level and the pressure sensor to analyze the pressure in the surrounding environment. These identified sensors will then be directly connected to an internetwork module so that they become dependent on themselves to the point that they create extra sensitivity for the system. When the produced data is collected, it will be uploaded to the cloud and presented in graphical forms for ease of reference on an app or possibly a website. Some of the information displayed are readings acquired from the sensors used to control the pumps and the amount of water consumption.
Farmers will promote this technology on the premise of optimizing water usage. This will work best as long as the farmers can check for moisture levels in the soil and make adequate provisions for changing weather conditions. Technological advancement has now made smart irrigation possible so that farmers will not solely depend on favorable weather conditions yet saving water usage and transforming irrigation activities.
Types of Technology based Irrigation
Center Pivot Irrigation
This type can also be called water-wheel and circle irrigation. This includes a long irrigating pipeline attached to a central tower so that it moves gradually over the space in a circular way, spraying the plants. This is achieved when the system controls circular irrigation sprayers due to data gotten from the field sensors on stream angle of flow and direction. Thereby reaching out to plants that are not close to the water source as well as not causing those nearby to receive excess of the water. The system is also capable of calculating possible yield and harvest as well as plan irrigation times.
This provides precise control while watering the plants through its low-pressure and low volume system. It directly applies water to the roots of the plants so as to increase efficiency and be certain of uniform water distribution. Since there is a high need here to precisely control the quantity of water that will be applied to each plant, it plans for the dosage used by each plant. Artificial Intelligence mechanisms can be engaged as well to identify plants and based on that will determine that quantity of water to be applied.
Sprinklers are placed in a central location on each section of the field then high-pressured water comes to it through pipes attached to pumps. In order to create a situation whereby this irrigation system will analyze various data to enable it determine water budget, thermal and acoustic rain sensors are installed to perceive rainfall and analyze its magnitude so as to schedule the next irrigation after it finishes raining. The sprinklers are automated to receive information to prevent high water use.
Drippers are small openings in pipes positioned at the roots of plants so that water is directly applied to the roots of the plants at every point. This method reduces water loss for farmers through runoff or evaporation. Even though this type of irrigation faces the challenge of visibility, a system is designed to interface with an app so that farmers can be knowledgeable of when irrigation starts and ends and as well the soil variables are displayed for notification and likely action.
The bottom line to this is that agriculture accounts for about 70% of global freshwater usage. What is irking is that a large amount of this water is lost due to unfit and old methods of irrigation. But with Internet of Things enabled agricultural sensors, farmers can be able to engage in close monitoring of various events and be able to deploy best irrigation practices real-time. If any of the discussed methods are appropriately engaged, it will result in higher yield in crops, systemic water management and increased cost savings.