Working of Fingerprint Recognition


Fingerprint Recognition allows the individual to be identified or verified through comparison and analysis of his or her finger dermal ridges. One of the very first techniques used for identifying individual automatically and is still one of the most effective techniques in biometric.



Fingerprint recognition is the automated method of identifying the identity of an individual based on the two fingerprints comparison. Fingerprint recognition is one of the most important biometrics and the most used authentication on biometric in computerised systems. The working of fingerprint recognition is so popular are the ease of established use, acceptance and acquisition when compared to other use biometrics.


A Fingerprint is the presentation of the dermal ridges of a finger. Dermal ridges occur through environmental factors and genetic; the genetic code in DNA gives precise instructions on how skin form in a developing individual. This is a major reason why in identical twins, fingerprints are different. At about 7 months, fingerprints are formed fully in a developing individual and finger ridge configurations do not change throughout the life process.



The three patterns of fingerprint ridges are:

The Arch - arch is a pattern of one side of the finger where the ridge enters, which then rises in the centre and form an arch, and then exist in another side of the finger.


The Loop - loop allows the ridge to enters one side of the finger, forming a curve and further exits on the same side of the finger from which it enters.


The Whorl - this is a pattern in which a ridge form a circle around a central point.



There are four types of fingerprint reader hardware are:

Optical Readers - optical readers are the common types of fingerprint readers that with a digital camera sensor, which acquires a visual image of an individual fingerprint. The readings may be impacted by marked fingers or dirty.


Capacitive Readers - this type of fingerprint readers is also known as CMOS readers, which enables the usage of capacitors and thus, electrical current to produce an image of the fingerprint.


Ultrasound Readers -this is the most recent types of fingerprint readers hardware, that uses high-frequency sound waves that penetrate the epidermal layer of the skin. This enables the elimination of the needs to clean. While other readers acquire images requiring hands to be cleaned.


Thermal Readers - works on the sensation of a contact surface which results in high power consumption and performs according to the temperature of the environment involved.



Fingerprint recognition has a variety of applications beyond law enforcement. These are:


Onboarding: Prospective customers and employees are identified by an organisation with the use of fingerprint recognition to prevent fraud.


Mobile authentication: Users verification via fingerprint scan is now common in today's mobile authentication to access a mobile application or device.


Physical access control: Facilities access are managed by employers and business with the use of fingerprints.


Identify management: False identities and duplicates are prevented by organisations with the use of fingerprint recognition.



  •  April, 05, 2021
  • Jamiu A. Kareem
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